Photosynthesis takes place entirely in the chloroplasts of plants …and other eukaryote cells, but for A2 Biology you don’t really need to go into all that, so just roll with a leaf palisade cell.
which by the way looks a bit like this…
Notice how the chloroplasts are positioned towards the edges and tops of the cells?
This is to maximize the amount of light reaching it. Chlorophyll change their position in the cytoplasm in response to different light intensity.
The bits and bobs
There’s the things that are also in Mitochondria
- Ribosomes for synthesizing proteins and enzymes involved in photosynthesis
- Circular DNA for coding for proteins etc
- Cytoplasm like jelly stuff known as the Stroma (although in Mitochondria it’s called Matrix) where the Calvin Cycle (light independent reaction) takes place
- Inner & Outer Membranes
Then there’s the bits that’s only in the Chloroplasts
- Chlorophyll - light sensitive pigment
- Thylakoid - further membrane within chloroplast
- Grana/Granum - stacks of thylakoid
- Starch (as a means to store glucose without lowering the water potential)
Here’s a more simplistic view